What are we protecting ourselves from exactly?
This is a preventable force majeure. OK when it happens it hurts, but it could be worse. And this is a lesson that most likely won't be repeated. This has happened to yours truly. Give us a call if you want the gory details.
Rootkit is a piece of software that allows the hacker to install other sites on your web server. From there, these sites are used for attacks on other servers. Usually the hackers objective is to use your server for cyber attacks, not to deface your site, not to blackmail you, doubt they would even care if they found credit card details of your customers. The reason this happens is because exploits are discovered and soon fixed, but the newer versions of the software do not get installed. Face it, this can happen to the best of us.
This form of attack will not go away no matter how many laws are passed or how long a jail sentence is imposed because there is always another country these cyber attacks can be launched from. So companies that have a famous brand, that can't hide, hire consultants for huge money in their own country, who happen to be known hackers, to protect against hackers in other countries. Also there is almost always vulnerabilities to be found in even the most mature software. And do not blame the under paid or not paid software programmers. You do not deserve them.
This has happened to yours truly. Give us a call if you want the gory details. Luckily I had backups and still had full access to the hacked server. Note to Mac users, thought this was unlikely to happen on Linux, btw OSX uses a Linux kernel.
This is where Murphys Law bites and then bites again and then again. So who is the human we are referring to? It is yourself or everyone else around you. If it is yourself, over time you hopefully will learn not to mess up. Once is a mistake, twice is stupidity, and every time after that is genetics. If the cause is genetics the kindest way this can be explained is just do not trust yourself. So then we are left with everyone else and as much as you try they are hell bent on continuing to mess up forever and to make it worse they even say they have the best of intentions. Security policies are written and subsequently ignored with these people in mind. This is why it is said there are no innocents. And if there were make absolutely certain not to trust those people with anything. To all the girls, good guys are boring! Do not get stuck with one, you do not want one.
The only protection against yourself and everyone else is to have multiple backups in different locations. At least one of those backups should be with someone that is meticulous, paranoid, and well incentivized.
Messed up a file
This falls under human factor, but it is so common that it deserves separate mention. When working on software we often make changes to a file and then wish to go back to an older version. For those that are not religiously using a software to prevent this like RCS, CSV, or subversion there will be no older version to go back to. Then we have no choice, but to recreate the file if that is even possible. There is an upside to this ignoring the time and resource loss. The second time the same person writes a piece of software it is a safe bet the software will be better written than the original. This has happened to yours truly and this has and will happen to you.
Web host went bust
Businesses have a life cycle that looks like a bell curve. They are born, they somehow survive for a time, then they die hard spectacular deaths. Web hosts specialize in the spectacular death part. And when they die, for some reason, they do not bother to give their customers time to make backups or give any warning of the inevitable impending foreseeable doom that awaits them. They just simply say, "oh we are sorry but we have closed down thanks for your business". This has happened to yours truly and will undoubtedly happen again. Do not trust web hosts.